Physics and Philosophy
by Werner Heisenberg, co-developer of quantum mechanics and winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics. This is a very clear and relatively short book that brings the reader to understand how the new physics of the early 20th Century, relativity and quantum mechanics, changed the scientific philosophical landscape. Heisenberg goes through the major philosophical trends from the atomism of the ancient Greeks to the dominance in the 17th to 19th Centuries of Descarte's separation of mind from matter. I recommend this to any person intent on understanding current trends in scientific thinking. It's a marvelous and thought provoking book.